Topic 1: The Earth’s sea and atmosphere

Lesson Specification learning outcomes Prior learning from KS3 HSW statements BTEC Links

Lesson C1.1

The early atmosphere 1.1 Recall that the gases produced by volcanic activity formed the Earth’s early atmosphere Year 8 Explain how various natural and human-induced processes have led to changes in the atmosphere over a given period of time, e.g. volcanoes and power stations HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas To follow

 1.2 Recall that the early atmosphere contained:
a) little or no oxygen  
b) a large amount of carbon dioxide
c) water vapour and small amounts of other gases N/A N/A  

 1.3 Explain why there are different sources of information about the development of the atmosphere which makes it difficult to be precise about the evolution of the atmosphere N/A HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data

HSW 4 There are some questions that science cannot currently answer and some that science cannot address  

 1.4 Describe how condensation of water vapour formed oceans  Year 8 Describe changes of state in terms of a particle model HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas  

Lesson C1.2

A changing atmosphere 1.5 Describe how the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was reduced by:
a) the dissolution of carbon dioxide into the oceans
b) the later incorporation of this dissolved carbon dioxide into marine organisms which eventually formed carbonate rocks N/A
HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas  

 1.6 Explain how the growth of primitive plants used carbon dioxide and released oxygen by photosynthesis and consequently the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere gradually increased N/A HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas  

Lesson C1.3

Oxygen in the atmosphere practical 1.7 Investigate the proportion of oxygen in the atmosphere N/A HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data

HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a scientific question, or solve a scientific problem

HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data

HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and considering their validity and reliability as evidence

HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools  

Lesson C1.4

The atmosphere today 1.8 Describe the current composition of the atmosphere and interpret data sources showing this information N/A HSW 2 The interpretation of data, using creative thought, to provide evidence for testing ideas and developing theories

  

 1.9 Demonstrate an understanding of how small changes in the atmosphere occur through:
a) volcanic activity
b) human activity, including the burning of fossil fuels, farming and deforestation Year 7 Describe some changes which occur in the atmosphere over time, e.g. temperature, CO2 concentration

Year 7 Recognise whether changes are due to natural or human-induced processes, e.g. volcanic activity versus power stations

Year 8 Distinguish between the impact of natural and human processes on the atmosphere

Year 8 Explain how various natural and human-induced processes have led to changes in the atmosphere over a given period of time, e.g. volcanoes and power stations HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data

HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions

HSW 14 How uncertainties in scientific knowledge and scientific ideas change over time and the role of the scientific community in validating these changes  

 0.1 Recall the formulae of elements and simple compounds in the unit N/A HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools  

Topic 2: Materials from the Earth

Lesson Specification learning outcomes Prior learning from KS3 HSW statements BTEC Links

Lesson C1.5

Rocks and their formation 2.1 Describe that igneous rocks, such as granite, are:
a) formed by the solidification of magma or lava
b) made of crystals whose size depends on the rate of cooling N/A
HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas

HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools To follow

 2.2 Describe chalk and limestone as examples of sedimentary rocks Year 8 Explain, using models, how some of the characteristics of rocks are linked to biological, physical and chemical processes of formation N/A  

 2.3 Describe how sedimentary rocks are formed by the compaction of layers of sediment over a very long time period Year 7 Recognise, using simple models, the processes of sedimentation, erosion, weathering in the formation of rocks, e.g. in sedimentary rock

Year 8 Describe the processes involved in the formation of sedimentary rocks HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas

 2.4 Recall that sedimentary rocks:
a) may contain fossils
b) are susceptible to erosion  N/A N/A  

 2.5 Describe marble as an example of a metamorphic rock N/A N/A  

 2.6 Describe the formation of metamorphic rocks by the action of heat and/or pressure, including the formation of marble from chalk or limestone Year 8 Describe the effect of heat and pressure on the formation of igneous and metamorphic rocks as a possible progression from sedimentary rocks

Year 9 Use the rock cycle as a model to explain the formation and composition of different rock types N/A  

 2.7 Recall that limestone, chalk and marble exist in the Earth’s crust and that they are all natural forms of calcium carbonate N/A N/A  

Lesson C1.6

Limestone and its uses 2.8 Demonstrate an understanding of the balance between the demand for limestone and the economic, environmental and social effects of quarrying it Year 8 Describe examples of sustainable and non-sustainable development, e.g. forest management, whaling HSW 4 There are some questions that science cannot currently answer and some that science cannot address

HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools

HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions  

 2.9 Demonstrate an understanding of the commercial need for quarrying calcium carbonate on a large scale, as a raw material, for the formation of glass, cement and concrete N/A HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a scientific question, or solve a scientific problem

HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data

HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and considering their validity and reliability as evidence

HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions

 2.10 Describe the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide Year 7 Use experimental evidence to show that a chemical reaction has taken place

Year 8 Represent simple reactions by word equations and use these to identify patterns in reactions HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas  

Lesson C1.7

Thermal decomposition of carbonates practical 2.11 Investigate the ease of thermal decomposition of carbonates, including calcium carbonate, zinc carbonate and copper carbonate Year 9 Explain the importance of controlling factors affecting a reaction if patterns are to be accurately identified

Year 8 Represent simple reactions by word equations and use these to identify patterns in reactions

Year 9 Represent simple reactions by symbol equations and use these to identify patterns in reactions HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data

HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a scientific question, or solve a scientific problem

HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data

HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and considering their validity and reliability as evidence

HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools  

Lesson C1.8

Chemical reactions 2.12 Describe the ease of thermal decomposition of different metal carbonates  Year 7 Use experimental evidence to show that a chemical reaction has taken place

Year 7 Use qualitative observations when describing patterns in a range of reactions

Year 8 Represent simple reactions by word equations and use these to identify patterns in reactions

Year 8 Use quantitative observations when describing patterns in a range of reactions N/A  

 2.13 Demonstrate an understanding that:
a) atoms are the smallest particles of an element that can take part in chemical reactions  
b) during chemical reactions, atoms are neither created nor destroyed  
c) during chemical reactions, atoms are rearranged to make new products with different properties from the reactants Year 8 Describe how elements combine to form the building blocks of all substances

Year 8 Describe elements as consisting of only one type of atom

Year 9 Use a simple modelling kit to interpret the rearrangement of atoms during a chemical reaction HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas

HSW 14 How uncertainties in scientific knowledge and scientific ideas change over time and the role of the scientific community in validating these changes  

 2.16 Demonstrate an understanding that the total mass before and after a reaction in a sealed container is unchanged, as shown practically by a precipitation reaction Year 8 Describe how elements combine to form the building blocks of all substances

Year 9 Use a simple modelling kit to interpret the rearrangement of atoms during a chemical reaction HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data

HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas

HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a scientific question, or solve a scientific problem

HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data

HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and considering their validity and reliability as evidence

HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches  

 0.2 Represent chemical reactions by word equations
H and simple balanced equations N/A HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools  

 H 0.3 Write balanced chemical equations including the use of state symbols (s), (l), (g) and (aq) for a wide range of reactions in this unit N/A HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools  

 0.4 Assess practical work for risks and suggest suitable precautions for a range of practical scenarios for reactions in this unit N/A HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data


Lesson C1.9

Reactions of calcium compounds 2.14 Describe the effect of water on calcium oxide Year 7 Use experimental evidence to show that a chemical reaction has taken place HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data   

 2.15 Describe how calcium hydroxide dissolves in water to form a solution, known as limewater N/A N/A  

 2.17 Explain how calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate can be used to neutralise soil acidity N/A HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and considering their validity and reliability as evidence

HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions

 2.18 Explain how calcium carbonate can be used to remove acidic gases from coal-fired power station chimneys, reducing harmful emissions and helping to reduce acid rain N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

 0.4 Assess practical work for risks and suggest suitable precautions for a range of practical scenarios for reactions in this unit N/A HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data  

Topic 3: Acids

Lesson Specification learning outcomes Prior learning from KS3 HSW statements BTEC Links

Lesson C1.10

Indigestion 3.1 Recall that hydrochloric acid is produced in the stomach in order to:
a) help digestion
b) kill bacteria N/A N/A
To follow

 3.2 Describe indigestion remedies as containing substances that neutralise excess stomach acid N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

 0.1 Recall the formulae of elements and simple compounds in the unit N/A HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools  

 0.2 Represent chemical reactions by word equations

H and simple balanced equations N/A HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools  

 H 0.3 Write balanced chemical equations including the use of state symbols (s), (l), (g) and (aq) for a wide range of reactions in this unit N/A HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools  

Lesson C1.11

Indigestion remedies practical 3.3 Investigate the effectiveness of different indigestion remedies Year 9 Explain the importance of controlling factors affecting a reaction if patterns are to be accurately identified HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data

HSW 2 The interpretation of data, using creative thought, to provide evidence for testing ideas and developing theories

HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a scientific question, or solve a scientific problem

HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data

HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and considering their validity and reliability as evidence

HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools

HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  


Lesson C1.12

More neutralisation 3.4 Recall that acids are neutralised by:
a) metal oxides
b) metal hydroxides  
c) metal carbonates
to produce salts (no details of salt preparation techniques or ions are required) N/A
HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a scientific question, or solve a scientific problem

HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data

HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and considering their validity and reliability as evidence

HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches  

 3.5 Recall that:
a) hydrochloric acid produces chloride salts
b) nitric acid produces nitrate salts  
c) sulfuric acid produces sulfate salts N/A N/A  

Lesson C1.13

Electrolysis practical

 3.6 Describe electrolysis as a process in which electrical energy, from a d.c. supply, decomposes compounds, by considering the electrolysis of dilute hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen and chlorine (explanations of the reactions at the electrodes are not required) N/A N/A  

 3.7 Investigate the electrolysis of dilute hydrochloric acid  N/A HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data

HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a scientific question, or solve a scientific problem

HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data

HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and considering their validity and reliability as evidence

HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools  

 3.8 Describe the chemical test for hydrogen N/A HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools  

 3.9 Describe the chemical test for chlorine N/A HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data  

Lesson C1.14

The importance of chlorine 3.10 Recall that chlorine can be obtained from sea water by electrolysis (explanations of the reactions at the electrodes are not required) N/A N/A  

 3.11 Describe chlorine as a toxic gas and that this leads to potential hazards associated with its large-scale manufacture N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

 3.12 Describe the use of chlorine in the manufacture of bleach and of the polymer poly(chloroethene) (PVC) N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

 0.5 Demonstrate an understanding that hazard symbols used on containers:

a) indicate the dangers associated with the contents

b) inform people about safe working procedures with these substances in the laboratory N/A HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data  

Lesson C1.15

Electrolysis of water 3.13 Recall that water can be decomposed by electrolysis to form hydrogen and oxygen  N/A N/A  

 3.14 Describe the chemical test for oxygen N/A HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools  


Topic 4: Obtaining and using metals

Lesson Specification learning outcomes Prior learning from KS3 HSW statements BTEC Links

Lesson C1.16

Ores 4.1 Recall that:
a) most metals are extracted from ores found in the Earth’s crust  
b) unreactive metals are found in the Earth as the uncombined elements  
Year 8 Use experimental evidence to arrange common metals in order of reactivity N/A To follow

 4.2 Describe how most metals are extracted from their ores by:
a) heating with carbon, illustrated by iron
b) electrolysis, illustrated by aluminium

(knowledge of the blast furnace or the electrolytic cell for aluminium extraction are not required) N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

 4.3 Explain why the method used to extract a metal is related to its position in the reactivity series and cost of the extraction process Year 8 Represent simple reactions by word equations and use these to identify patterns in reactions

Year 8 Use experimental evidence to arrange common metals in order of reactivity

Year 9 Evaluate the evidence used to arrange common metals in order of reactivity and identify its limitations HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas  


Lesson C1.17

Metal extraction practical 4.4 Investigate methods for extracting a metal from its ore Year 7 Use qualitative observations when describing patterns in a range of reactions HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data

HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a scientific question, or solve a scientific problem

HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data

HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and considering their validity and reliability as evidence

HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools  

Lesson C1.18

Oxidation and reduction 4.5 Describe oxidation as the gain of oxygen and reduction as the loss of oxygen N/A HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas  

 4.6 Recall that the extraction of metals involves reduction of ores N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

 4.7 Recall that the oxidation of metals results in corrosion Year 7 Use experimental evidence to show that a chemical reaction has taken place HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

 4.8 Demonstrate an understanding that a metal’s resistance to oxidation is related to its position in the reactivity series Year 8 Use experimental evidence to arrange common metals in order of reactivity HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas  


Lesson C1.19

Recycling metals 4.9 Discuss the advantages of recycling metals, including economic implications, and how recycling preserves both the environmental and the supply of valuable raw materials Year 8 Describe examples of sustainable and non-sustainable development, e.g. forest management, whaling HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions  

Lesson C1.20

Properties of metals 4.10 Describe the uses of metals in relation to their properties, including:  
a) aluminium
b) copper  
c) gold
d) steel
Year 9 Distinguish between metals and other materials using their properties HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

Lesson C1.21

Alloys 4.11 Use models to explain why converting pure metals into alloys often increases the strength of the product

 N/A HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas

HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

 4.12 Demonstrate an understanding that iron is alloyed with other metals to produce alloy steels with a higher strength and a greater resistance to corrosion N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

 H 4.13 Describe how alloying changes the properties of metals, including:  
a) smart or shape memory alloys, including nitinol, an alloy of nickel and titanium
b) gold alloys with higher strength, including fineness (parts per thousand) and carats to indicate the proportion of pure gold  N/A HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

 H 4.14 Demonstrate an understanding that new materials are developed by chemists to fit new applications, such as the creation of new shape memory alloys for use, for example, in spectacle frames and as stents in damaged blood vessels N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  


Topic 5: Fuels

Lesson Specification learning outcomes Prior learning from KS3 HSW statements BTEC Links

Lesson C1.22

Crude oil 5.1 Describe hydrocarbons as compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen only N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions To follow

 5.2 Describe crude oil as a complex mixture of hydrocarbons N/A N/A

Lesson C1.23

Crude oil fractions 5.3 Describe the separation of crude oil into simpler, more useful mixtures by the process of fractional distillation (details of fractional distillation are not required)  N/A HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas

HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data

HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

 5.4 Recall the name and uses of the following fractions:
a) gases, used in domestic heating and cooking
b) petrol, used as fuel for cars
c) kerosene, used as fuel for aircrafts
d) diesel oil, used as fuel for some cars and trains
e) fuel oil, used as fuel for large ships and in some power stations
f) bitumen, used to surface roads and roofs N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

 5.5 Describe that hydrocarbons in different fractions differ from each other in:
a) the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms their molecules contain
b) boiling points
c) ease of ignition
d) viscosity  N/A HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas  

Lesson C1.24

Combustion 5.6 Describe how the complete combustion of hydrocarbons:  
a) involves the oxidation of the hydrocarbons
b) produces carbon dioxide and water
c) gives out energy   
Year 8 Represent simple reactions by word equations and use these to identify patterns in reactions  HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools Unit 4
M3

Unit 4
D3

 5.7 Describe the chemical test for carbon dioxide (using limewater) Year 7 Use qualitative observations when describing patterns in a range of reactions HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data  

Lesson C1.25

Incomplete combustion 5.8 Explain why the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons can produce carbon and carbon monoxide Year 8 Represent simple reactions by word equations and use these to identify patterns in reactions N/A  

 5.9 Describe how carbon monoxide behaves as a toxic gas  N/A N/A  

 5.10 Demonstrate an understanding of the problems caused by incomplete combustion producing carbon monoxide and soot in appliances that use carbon compounds as fuels  N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

Lesson C1.26

Acid rain 5.11 Explain why impurities in some hydrocarbon fuels result in the production of sulfur dioxide N/A N/A  

 5.12 Demonstrate an understanding of some problems associated with acid rain caused when sulfur dioxide dissolves in rain water  N/A N/A  


Lesson C1.27

Climate change 5.13 Describe how various gases in the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour, trap heat from the Sun and that this keeps the Earth warm

 Year 7 Describe some changes which occur in the atmosphere over time, e.g. temperature, CO2 concentration

Year 8 Explain how various natural and human-induced processes have led to changes in the atmosphere over a given period of time, e.g. volcanoes and power stations

Year 9 Use models to show how controlling human activity can make development more sustainable, e.g. power stations and the carbon cycle N/A  

 5.14 Demonstrate an understanding that the Earth’s temperature varies and that human activity may influence this  Year 7 Describe some changes which occur in the atmosphere over time, e.g. temperature, CO2 concentration

 HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions

HSW 14 How uncertainties in scientific knowledge and scientific ideas change over time and the role of the scientific community in validating these changes

 5.15 Demonstrate an understanding that the proportion of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere varies, due to human activity, and that chemists are investigating methods to control the amount of the gas in the atmosphere by:
a) iron seeding of oceans
b) converting carbon dioxide into hydrocarbons
Year 7 Describe some changes which occur in the atmosphere over time, e.g. temperature, CO2 concentration

 HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions

HSW 14 How uncertainties in scientific knowledge and scientific ideas change over time and the role of the scientific community in validating these changes  

 5.16 Evaluate how far the correlation between global temperature and the proportion of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere provides evidence for climate change N/A HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data

HSW 2 The interpretation of data, using creative thought, to provide evidence for testing ideas and developing theories

HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas

HSW 4 There are some questions that science cannot currently answer and some that science cannot address

HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools

HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions

HSW 14 How uncertainties in scientific knowledge and scientific ideas change over time and the role of the scientific community in validating these changes  

Lesson C1.28

Biofuels 5.17 Describe biofuels as being possible alternatives to fossil fuels N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions

HSW 14 How uncertainties in scientific knowledge and scientific ideas change over time and the role of the scientific community in validating these changes  

 5.18 Recall that one example of a biofuel is ethanol obtained by processing sugar cane or sugar beet and that it can be used to reduce the demand for petrol N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions  

 5.19 Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of replacing fossil fuels with biofuels, including:
a) the fact that biofuels are renewable
b) that growing the crops to make biofuels requires land and may affect the availability of land for growing food
c) the balance between the carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere as these crops grow and the carbon dioxide produced when they are transported and burned Year 9 Use models to show how controlling human activity can make development more sustainable, e.g. power stations and the carbon cycle

Year 9 Use data from secondary sources to explain the impact of atmospheric and environmental changes, e.g. the effect of deforestation on CO2 concentration and temperature HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools

HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions  

Lesson C1.29

Choosing fuels 5.20 Demonstrate an understanding of the factors that make a good fuel, including:
a) how easily it burns
b) the amount of ash or smoke it produces  
c) the comparative amount of heat energy it produces (calculations involving conversion to joules are not required)
d) how easy it is to store and transport
Year 7 Use qualitative observations when describing patterns in a range of reactions HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data

HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

 5.21 Recall that a simple fuel cell combines hydrogen and oxygen to form water and that this reaction releases energy N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

 5.22 Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen, rather than petrol, as a fuel in cars N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions

 5.23 Describe petrol, kerosene and diesel oil as non-renewable fossil fuels obtained from crude oil and methane as a non-renewable fossil fuel found in natural gas N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

Lesson C1.30

Fuels practical 5.24 Compare the temperature rise produced when the same volume of water is heated by different fuels Year 8 Use quantitative observations when describing patterns in a range of reactions HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data

HSW 2 The interpretation of data, using creative thought, to provide evidence for testing ideas and developing theories

HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a scientific question, or solve a scientific problem

HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data

HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and considering their validity and reliability as evidence

HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools  


Lesson C1.31

Alkanes and alkenes 5.25 Recall that alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, which are present in crude oil  N/A N/A  

 5.26 Recall the formulae of the alkanes methane, ethane and propane, and draw the structures of these molecules to show how the atoms are bonded together (No further knowledge of bonding is required in this unit) N/A HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas  

 5.27 Recall that alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons N/A N/A  

 5.28 Recall the formulae of the alkenes ethene and propene and draw the structures of their molecules to show how the atoms are bonded together (No further knowledge of bonding is required in this unit) N/A HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas

HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools  

 5.29 Describe how bromine water is used to distinguish between alkanes and alkenes Year 7 Use qualitative observations when describing patterns in a range of reactions HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data  

Lesson C1.32

Cracking 5.30 Describe how cracking involves the breaking down of larger saturated hydrocarbon molecules (alkanes) into smaller, more useful ones, some of which are unsaturated (alkenes) N/A HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas

HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks  

 H 5.31 Explain why cracking is necessary, including by using data on the composition of different crude oils and the demand for fractions in crude oil N/A HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data

HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools

HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches

HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

 5.32 Describe the cracking of liquid paraffin in the laboratory N/A HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first-hand data  

Lesson C1.33

Polymerisation 5.33 Recall that:
a) many ethene molecules can combine together in a polymerisation reaction
b) the polymer formed is called poly(ethene)
(conditions and mechanisms not required

H but equations required) N/A N/A  

 5.34 Describe how other polymers can be made by combining together other monomer molecules, to include poly(propene), poly(chloroethene) (PVC) and PTFE N/A HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas

 5.35 Relate uses of the polymers poly(ethene), poly(propene), poly(chloroethene) (PVC) and PTFE to the properties of the compounds N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

Lesson C1.34

Problems with polymers 5.36 Recall that most polymers are not biodegradable, persist in landfill sites and that many produce toxic products when burnt N/A HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools

HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions

 5.37 Explain how some problems associated with the disposal of polymers can be overcome:

a) by recycling

b) by developing biodegradable polymers N/A HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks

HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions

HSW 14 How uncertainties in scientific knowledge and scientific ideas change over time and the role of the scientific community in validating these changes